Dhcpcd Static Ip

dhclient can be invoked manually to "release" the client's currently assigned IP address, and get another address from the DHCP server. 200/24 static routers=192. Send Email. 既に自動起動させている場合は設定ファイル編集直後はdhcpcdがDHCPサーバーから取得し割り当てたIPアドレスと、設定ファイルで設定した固定IPアドレスの2つが設定されている。. 1 static domain_name_servers=192. conf Append the following. Static IP Address. Wenn Du Deinen Raspberry Pi beispielsweise mit der IPv4-Adresse 192. conf 在/etc/dhcpcd. conf by cob » 2018-03-27 00:29 Again, that's the way dhcpcd5 works, and if you don't want that behaviour, don't install it - it's an installable option, not the default. Steps 1 – 3 are for the Raspberry Pi Raspbian Stretch Lite WiFi setup. auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto eth0 allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet manual auto wlan0 allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0. We can also assign a fixed IP on basis of MAC address (hardware ethernet) of that interface. conf that are added, and possibly a power users section on setting either a static IP manually via the OS configuration tools specific to that OS, or about setting a reservation for the Pi-hole if it is not acting as a DHCP server itself. But for first method that is by using dhcpcd file, static IP is assigned only when a device is connected to the port. Network trouble assigning static IP, dhcpcd works but not static. It will make your internet connection more stable and more reliable. Para hacer esto, añade la siguiente linea al final de su /etc/dhcpcd. Über SSH auf dem Raspberry Pi Anmelden (Ich verwende. auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto eth0 allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet manual auto wlan0 allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0. Disable dhcpcd. However, I do know that if I lose power or the router is retarted, it may dish out a different IP to Asterisk/FreePBX. 1 static domain_name_servers=8. It's also an IPv4LL (aka ZeroConf) client. Hallo zusammen, habe mal zu dem dhcpcd eine generelle Verständnisfrage. I couldn't trace the device, however found another interesting log entries. interface enxb827eb9e8acf static ip_address = 192. Die Datei dhcpcd. interface eth0 static ip_address=192. Installing the DHCP server. Scroll to the end of the file & add the following (making sure you put your network settings. Every time that you connect to the AT&T network the static IP address routes traffic to the computer or device that can be assigned an IP (such as a router or firewall). Hi everyone. conf - dhcpcd configuration file DESCRIPTION Althoughdhcpcdcan do everything from the command line, there are cases where it's just easierto do it once in a configuration file. This is aimed for SSH users who have no GUI on there Pi. Dauerhaft kannst du diesen Service mit systemctl disable dhcpcd abschalten. Changed and enhanced by seqyitur AT kde. On a Pi2 i have a clean implementation of jessy. International Shipping Info. # sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. conf and edit the 'dhcpcd' line to read 'dhcpcd=YES'. I haven't seen a thread here yet about setting up or using Static IP address on the Le Pan tablets. This means that if your system tries to resolve a hostname and it matches an entry in /etc/hosts, it will not attempt to look up the record in DNS. Um die DHCP-Konfiguration so zu modifizieren, dass der Raspberry Pi eine statische IP-Adresse verwendet, muss die Datei /etc/dhcpcd. It renews an already received address as required. Configure static IPv4 addresses. dhcpcd static ip,document about dhcpcd static ip,download an entire dhcpcd static ip document onto your computer. 0 Showing 1-7 of 7 messages. We need to tell it to ignore wlan0, as we will be configuring it with a static IP address elsewhere. Open /etc/dhcpcd. After successful installation and first boot, I'm about to log in for the first time. The first word on the line is the option and the rest of the line is the value. Welcome to the project page for dhcpcd, a DHCP and DHCPv6 client. Hi everyone. 1 # << change to your gateway (usually your router) static domain_name_servers=192. In einem Heimnetz werden die IP-Adressen meistens per DHCP vergeben. 1 # << change to. In this video I will show you how you can assign a static IP address to your Pi using dhcpcd. For example, to assign the IP address 69. However, once dhcpcd is restarted and dhcp is acquired, it will try to add routes again and will remove it's own route because of duplicate, but still mark the route as not added. static ip_address = the address you want to force your Pi to use. This will come in handy later when you start sharing files between computers, because you'll alway. *For static IP, consult /etc/dhcpcd. Most users don't need static IP addresses. I recommend doing this on a fresh install, however if you have attempted to set a. dhcpcd looks carefully at this file, I believe due to hooks in the new GUI and CLI interfaces for configuring Wifi. #controlgroup wheel # Inform the DHCP server of our hostname for DDNS. gateway 192. I haven't figured out a way for this to work with configuration file dhcpcd. Why have DHCP and static IP address at the same time? At my current place of employment, on my Windows box, when I do an ipconfig /all from my command prompt I see that I have both a static IP address as well as a dynamic IP address. For many of my projects on the Raspberry Pi a static, or fixed, IP-address has been needed. If you don't wish to continue using the Hotspot then the Raspberry Pi can be revered back to a standard wifi setup with the following steps. They're different some how but I think that the same result can be achieved. If you set ip_address then dhcpcd will not attempt to obtain a lease and just use the value for the address with an infinite lease time. conf, y vas a añadir estas líneas justo al principio del archivo antes que ningún otro contenido (no tienes que borrar nada, solo insertar estas líneas):. conf to edit the dhcpcd. Wie Sie Ihrem Raspberry Pi hingegen eine feste IP-Adresse zuweisen können, zeigen wir Ihnen in diesem Praxistipp. The easiest method of achieving this would be by configuring the network card to take the same IP. But for first method that is by using dhcpcd file, static IP is assigned only when a device is connected to the port. um eine statische IP zu setzen musst du nicht mehr die interfaces-Datei bearbeiten, sondern die Datei /etc/dhcpcd. In some cases, we need to assign a fixed IP to an interface each time it requested from dhcp. Setup your own Raspberry PI 2 Hadoop 2 cluster (Raspberry PI 2 Model B and Hadoop 2. static routers = This is the IP address of your gateway (probably the IP address or your router) static domain_name_servers = This is the IP address of your DNS (probably the IP address of your router). 12-1-ARCH Dynamic IP Address. interface eth0 static ip_address=192. Edit your dhcpcd. UPDATE : As of the 2015-05-05 update, you’ll also need to disable the DHCPcd service as well, or you’ll end up with a static and dynamic IP assigned to the eth0 interface. Die Zeile "static ip_address=192. 5, “Static Networking Configuration”. 1 static domain_name_servers=192. For example, to assign the IP address 69. I am using Boot2Qt on Raspberry pi 3B. In layman's terms, dhcpcd runs on your machine and silently configures your computer to work on the attached networks without trouble and mostly without configuration. conf to allow for updates via the control socket similar to wpa_supplicant. dhcpcd will arping each address in order before attempting DHCP. Changed and enhanced by seqyitur AT kde. Hi All, I am working in the suse linux environment. If you set ip_address then dhcpcd will not attempt to obtain a lease and just use the value for the address with an infinite lease time. 1 Auch hier muss zum Abschluss der Dienst networking neu gestartet oder ein reboot des System durchgeführt werden. Ich zeige euch wie ihr eine statische WLAN IP Adresse beim Raspberry Pi konfigurieren könnt. In case the network interface card should be configured with a static IP address, add their data to /etc/dhcpcd. You can add multiple IP addresses here separated with a single space. For setting a static IP for the Raspberry Pi 2 on the latest Raspbian release available at this time (20150505 through NOOBS v1. This seems a bit much, all I need is a static ip address for eth0 (for a local network only, no dns, etc). 8 static ip_address にはラズパイに設定したいIPをDHCPの範囲外で設定します。. *For static IP, consult /etc/dhcpcd. Some of you might wondering why would we assign multiple IP addresses to single Network card. # The loopback network interface (always required) auto lo iface lo inet loopback # Assign a static IP for this DHCP server through eth0: auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192. If your printer’s IP address keeps changing, your computer may not always be able to find it. sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. It is also needed if you run it as a DNS server, because your other devices need to be given a single IP address that they will hit for DNS requests. Issue resolved now, thanks. This document describes how to?configure and troubleshoot wireless IP phones registration to Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM). If an address is found, we will select the replying hardware address as the: profile, otherwise the ip address. If you don't wish to continue using the Hotspot then the Raspberry Pi can be revered back to a standard wifi setup with the following steps. static ip_address=192. eth0 default. dhclient is an alternative to dhcpcd and works in basically the same. Ping with an IP address works fine, but ping with a URL returns nothing at all, and I get errors about "unable to resolve address" issues from the browser. 30/24 static routers=10. 0, and sets the default gateway to 192. static ip_address legt die gewünschte IP-Adresse fest. I am assuming that your Arch Linux system is using, or will use, dhcpcd. Configuring a Static IP and Static Routes on a Raspberry Pi running Raspbian Jessie using the CLI Since the release of Raspbian Jessie a few things have changed regarding configuration of the network stack from the CLI. You can choose from two methods in this tutorial in configuring a static IP for Ethernet and Wifi interface. Here is an example which configures a static address, routes and dns. 20 ip dh 25168. 1 static domain_name_serve. Switching to a static IP (within your network) by a dummy for dummies If you're reading this, you're probably using a dynamic IP with DHCP - especially if you just followed the install instructions and emerged dhcpcd. We need to tell it to ignore wlan0, as we will be configuring it with a static IP address elsewhere. เข้าไปที่ sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. 2" mit der Subnetzmaske "255. Setup your own Raspberry PI 2 Hadoop 2 cluster (Raspberry PI 2 Model B and Hadoop 2. The DHCP client in Linux is called dhclient. whatever/24 dev eth0 ip link set dev eth0 up ip route add default via 192. Given that assumption, let’s assign the IP address 192. 1), the old method modifying the / etc / network / interfaces file isn't so efficiency as before. (wired connection) My modem is ZyXell P660W-TX. Configures a static value If you set ip_address then dhcpcd will not attempt to obtain a lease and just use the value for the address with an infinite lease time. It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. # Allow users of this group to interact with dhcpcd via the control socket. With a static IP, you’ll be able to use the same IP address every time you connect to your Pi. No matter what I did, it kept the address that it was assigned some time ago. Being by editing the file (do not use /etc. You assign the static IP to the appropriate network interface. dhcpcd is a mature and stable standards compliant DHCP client. I changed some settings in dhcpcd. Static IP address In case the network interface card should be configured with a static IP address , type it into the graphical user interface. # Please note that this file is written to be used with dhcpcd # For static IP, consult /etc/dhcpcd. conf to set your static IP address on the Raspberry Pi. In newer Raspian versions, interface configuration is handled by dhcpcd by default. For this we are using latest arch Linux as of now Nov 2017 [[email protected] ~]# uname -r 4. 1 Despues de agregar estas lineas, procedemos con Ctrl+O + Enter para guardar los cambios y ya nuestra raspberry iniciará con la IP estática seleccionada (192. I have searched all over the internet for a guide to assign a fixed IP address. STATIC dhcpcd has been configured with a static configuration which has not been obtained from a DHCP server. But there is no dhcpcd. Voraussetzung dafür ist ein vorhandener DHCP-Server im selben Netzwerksegment. systemctl-analyze tells me it takes 7. Das einfachste und auf die schnelle funktionierende wäre allerdings, eine quasi-static-IP im Router vorzugeben. Or WORKED every time. Eine statische IP-Konfiguration ist nötig, wenn es im lokalen Netzwerk keinen DHCP-Server gibt. conf has four IP addresses manually entered (two each for OpenDNS and google), plus one added by the router from dhcpcd. I managed to set a static IP via: sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. It is on a virtual bridge interface, which I use as DHCP/DNS/router for my virtual machines. 254 The above example assigns the address 192. ISC DHCP v6 Server. This is the easiest way to set a static IP. There is no such type of network setup - you either have static, or DHCP. Um das WLAN zu konfigurieren muss ein Zugang zum Netzwerk geschaffen und eine IP-Adresse festgelegt werden. dhcpcd will prepend this file to the beginning of /etc/resolv. Here is an example which configures a static address, routes and dns. I know how to set up a static IP in Raspbian. Having a static IP isn't essential, however it will make repeated access to the Raspberry Pi via SSH much simpler, as you'll always know that the Raspberry Pi has the same address. You can add hostname and IP addresses to the file /etc/hosts for static lokups. INTRODUCTION. You might be having the trouble you mentioned because of how you are calling dhcpcd (just a guess, let us know). Um das WLAN zu konfigurieren muss ein Zugang zum Netzwerk geschaffen und eine IP-Adresse festgelegt werden. conf to set up a static IP address, It works every time. We mean a permanent IP Address from our router. 0 Showing 1-7 of 7 messages. If you set ip_address then dhcpcd will not attempt to obtain a lease and will just use the value for the address with an infinite lease time. In case the network interface card should be configured with a static IP address, add their data to /etc/dhcpcd. As far as I know the OS uses dhcpcd to initiate a dhcp request to the dhcp server for getting an IP address. 20 ip dh 25168. dhcpcd will arping each address in order before attempting DHCP. 199/24 static routers=192. dhcpcd is an implementation of the DHCP client specified in RFC 2131. The DHCP client in Linux is called dhclient. There is also a tutorial about using systemd-networkd. XX static routers=192. local (see below). It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Hi All, We have an AIX 5. # sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. Microcontroller projects To access the raspberry pi we will set a static IP address. Why are you running dhcpcd if you have a static IP? The "d" stands for dynamic, the opposite of static. conf with static IP address entries. This is the latest 2017 tutorial about configuring static IP for Ethernet as well as Wifi interface on Raspberry Pi 3. I would add in a section about the lines of /etc/dhcpcd. dhcpcd - a DHCP client. How to Set Static IP on Android Tablets & Phones (Change IP Address) If you’re not familiar with the basic idea, we’re also going to explain it below. This is the easiest way to set a static IP. Das geht mit recht wenig Aufwand und auch für Anfänger. Having a Static IP Address on the Raspberry Pi is very useful as it will make the SSH connection of the Raspberry Pi much simpler and easier. conf file to set up a static IP address. dhcpcd seems to assign you a perfectly valid ip adress if I understand correctly? If you want a static ip, why use dhcp altogether? If I understand it wrong, please try to rephrase your question as from here it doesn't seem to be a problem with dhcpcd. I have read a few tutorials (I realise raspbian jesse tutorials are not applicable to this) and I am having an issue that I dont know how to solve. CONF Section: File Formats (5) Updated: SMM Index BSD mandoc NAME dhcpcd. Ready to setup the WiFi and static IP settings on the Raspberry Pi running Raspbian Stretch Lite. Having another static match (article's example 10-static-enp3s0. As a consequence I need dhcpcd to run the firewall script again any time the ip address changes. The first 3 bytes of this address cannot be exactly the same as those of another interface. Es handelt sich um ein Debian 4. Hallo zusammen! Ich habe einen Server, der den dhcpcd Daemon startet, um seinen Hostname, DNS Server, IP, etc. Open /etc/dhcpcd. zu konfigurieren. Simply go into the tool, usually in the system tray or menu, and input the required parameters for your network. ip link set dev eth0 down ip addr flush dev eth0 ip addr add 192. Once it reboots, we can SSH again, hopefully into the same IP address as last time, as long as the static IP we assigned is the same as the old IP address. sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd. DHCP-Server automatisieren den. knappem Vorrat an IP-Adressen kann man die Lease-Time herabsetzen, damit die Adressen schneller an neue Clients vergeben werden können. 1 without using dhcpcd. Can someone point me to how to make my IP address static on the Asterisk/Linux computer?. 既に自動起動させている場合は設定ファイル編集直後はdhcpcdがDHCPサーバーから取得し割り当てたIPアドレスと、設定ファイルで設定した固定IPアドレスの2つが設定されている。. If for some reason, dhcpcd fails, you may want to try dhclient(8). conf After completing this project you will have a secure Raspbian image that you can flash to another. Configuring a Static IP and Static Routes on a Raspberry Pi running Raspbian Jessie using the CLI Since the release of Raspbian Jessie a few things have changed regarding configuration of the network stack from the CLI. Configure Network Settings on Raspberry Pi Hardware. Imagine how much trouble your postman would have if your house constantly changed location :) This task assumes that you have the official Raspian OS release installed. Having a Static IP Address on the Raspberry Pi is very useful as it will make the SSH connection of the Raspberry Pi much simpler and easier. The entry of static will stop the server looking for an IP address from DHCP. Das einfachste und auf die schnelle funktionierende wäre allerdings, eine quasi-static-IP im Router vorzugeben. 200/24 static routers=192. Wie Sie Ihrem Raspberry Pi hingegen eine feste IP-Adresse zuweisen können, zeigen wir Ihnen in diesem Praxistipp. Ist der Dienst installiert aber abgeschaltet, diesen erst aktivieren, erst dann. A static IP (as you could probably tell by the name) is one that doesn’t change. To learn how to set a static IP address using the current default configuration, see this tutorial. RFC 3442 Classless Static Route Option for DHCPv4 December 2002 attack by providing the IP address of a potential snooper. As it is working as instructed try to be more specific in the `Match` section. you could also post your dhcpcd. See the bottom of this post. How to set Static IP on Raspberry Pi 3. An account with root privileges or direct access to root account. In newer Raspian versions, interface configuration is handled by dhcpcd by default. 1 Auch hier muss zum Abschluss der Dienst networking neu gestartet oder ein reboot des System durchgeführt werden. static routers = This is the IP address of your gateway (probably the IP address or your router) static domain_name_servers = This is the IP address of your DNS (probably the IP address of your router). sudo systemctl disable hostapd. I am assuming that your Arch Linux system is using, or will use, dhcpcd. (not true static, but it works). Multiple static IP addresses on eth0 Raspian Stretch using dhcpcd Thu Nov 29, 2018 9:59 am I am looking for a solution to use multiple static IP addresses on the eth0 interface under Raspbian Stretch by using dhcpcd as that appears to be the Raspbian networking solution going forward. In order to do this we will need to edit the file /etc/dhcpcd. And because it's Lite, all we can use is the. The following command can be used to load the file into an. Why have DHCP and static IP address at the same time? At my current place of employment, on my Windows box, when I do an ipconfig /all from my command prompt I see that I have both a static IP address as well as a dynamic IP address. Once I finished downloading and the image was written to the SD card, I proceeded to do the initial set-up of the Pi for this particular project, which in this case included setting a static IP address. (The static bridge config contains only 1 physical interface. conf fügst du am ende der Datei folgende Zeilen hinzu:. Hallo zusammen! Ich habe einen Server, der den dhcpcd Daemon startet, um seinen Hostname, DNS Server, IP, etc. If you set ip_address then dhcpcd will not attempt to obtain a lease and just use the value for the address with an infinite lease time. conf file from now on. 1 static domain_name_servers=8. 200/24 static routers=192. Customer Service. Für die Konfiguration der Ethernet-Schnittstelle ist jetzt dhcpcd zuständig. 4 static domain_search=mydomain. I only have 1 guest, win 2008, it sees the virtual adapter but does not get a DHCP ip. interface wlan0 metric 100 interface eth0 static ip_address=192. static routers=192. 41/24" lauten. Description: Network configurator for static IP address by using kommander. Sir, In both cases i can configure the static IP. Can someone please guide me about which is the best way to create a temporary static IP that will not cause me longterm problems?. Setting a static IP address is easy and useful if you are running something that requires the IP address to remain the same after a reboot. -S,--static value Configures a static value. The virtual interface will be added to the bridge when the VM is started. Y – This is the new static IP select something higher up in the range. 3/24 static routers=192. No matter what I did, it kept the address that it was assigned some time ago. BOOTP provides similar functionality, with certain restrictions. Configure Static IP for your Ethernet. And finally, we need to disable our static IP assignment on each client and enabled dhcp systemctl stop network systemctl disable network systemctl start dhcpcd systemctl enable dhcpcd Then check that everything worked correctly on the client by running ip addr cat /etc/resolv. Older versions of dhcpcd ran the script even when the IP didn't change. As far as I know the OS uses dhcpcd to initiate a dhcp request to the dhcp server for getting an IP address. Stopping this service will remove the secondary ip address after a reboot or network restart. (The static bridge config contains only 1 physical interface. Hallo zusammen! Ich habe einen Server, der den dhcpcd Daemon startet, um seinen Hostname, DNS Server, IP, etc. Apparently the current version of dhcpcd doesn't run the /etc/dhcpc/dhcpcd-eth0. But Jessie comes with dhcpcd so interfaces file is only partially used now. Le but est dé créer un répéteur wifi. Nm dhcpcd: will arping each address in order before attempting DHCP. set the static IP address for your RaspberryPi in your DHCP server. #controlgroup wheel # Inform the DHCP server of our hostname for DDNS. This is fine when it's connected to a network but if you want connect to it in the field, say from your laptop, then it will be a problem as the Pi won't have an IP address. Simply go into the tool, usually in the system tray or menu, and input the required parameters for your network. By Static IP Address, we do not mean a dedicated Static IP Address from the ISP. I couldn't trace the device, however found another interesting log entries. conf文件 最下面 最底部 添加下面代码 (最下面 最底部 回车一行) eth0 代表 本地网卡 wlan0 代表 无线网卡 static domain_name_servers= 网关 +. conf 在/etc/dhcpcd. 4 First we specify the interface eth0 then all options follows with the prefix static. This is the easiest way to set a static IP. Setting Static IP Address Using a GUI Tool. conf and add the following line to the bottom of the file: denyinterfaces wlan0. This has the advantage of isolating the problem: if it happens again, then it's your router's fault, otherwise it was an incorrect choice of static IP address. Most users don't need static IP addresses. Though DHCP is used to deliver dynamic IP addresses to its clients, it doesn't mean static IP addresses can't also be used at the same time. I cannot configure with specific ip that i want. Die Angabe "24" ist eine Kurzschreibweise für die Subnetzmaske. We have concluded Different ways of Configuring Static routes on Linux. D1 arping 192. I could probably get a static IP if I filled out a stack of forms. If an address is found, we will select the replying hardware address as the: profile, otherwise the ip address. conf file, removing user set details. Simply go into the tool, usually in the system tray or menu, and input the required parameters for your network. dhcpcd seems to assign you a perfectly valid ip adress if I understand correctly? If you want a static ip, why use dhcp altogether? If I understand it wrong, please try to rephrase your question as from here it doesn't seem to be a problem with dhcpcd. broadcast 192. A particular address can be specified at the command line with the option -s xxx. Hi, In the setting up network section of beginner's guide [1], there should be an instruction to disable dhcpd service before setting up the static ip, otherwise dhcpd automatically rewrites the resolv. 1 // In my case i am running a caching nameserver on localhost // - Hence the directive of 127. conf, or iproute commands in /etc/rc. interface wlan0 static ip_address=192. This has the advantage of isolating the problem: if it happens again, then it's your router's fault, otherwise it was an incorrect choice of static IP address. 1 static domain_name_servers=192. Statische IP Adressen (optional) Soll der WLAN auto lo iface lo inet loopback iface eth0 inet static address 192. Now my question is how to stop the. Beispiel lan, Zeilen 8-12: Für eine statische IP-Konfiguration wählt man die Methode static. Send Email. Here is an example which configures a static address, routes and dns. 254 static domain_name_servers=192. I see no way to set an IP address there. This page is may need to be merged with other page(s) including RPi Setting up a static IP in Debian. static ip_address legt die gewünschte IP-Adresse fest. 1 static domain_name_servers=192. static domain_name_servers = This is the IP address of your DNS (probably the IP address of your router). I wuold like to use the same CD to start multiple Kiosk pcs specify the static IP address to assign to the network interface. Diese Zeile ersetzen wir und ordnen die gewünschte IP-Adresse, die Netzmaske und das soeben herausgefundene Gateway zu. without using a monitor and a keyboard. Max2Play Home 2016 (en) › Forums › Max2Play on Raspberry PI › RaspberryPI 3 Wifi doesn't work; failed to start dhcpcd on all interfaces This topic contains 6 replies, has 3 voices, and was last updated by v8ZcUxg4uyXWPxXvuAS2 premium 2 years, 11 months ago. Static hostnames are locally defined hostname-to-IP mappings located in the file /etc/hosts. conf file, removing user set details. You can start by determining which address the DSL router has assigned to the Rasp Pi. Pour cela, j'ai besoin de désactiver le client DHCP pour wlan1 et lui coller une ip statique. See that link for the proper.